Thursday, September 3, 2020

Cathedral Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

House of prayer - Research Paper Example Then again, the visually impaired man had a reason to draw the house of prayer. He was attempting to rouse the spouse with his energy to finish an assignment. For the visually impaired the church was of two perspectives; one, as a relinquished relic and the other, as a wonderful structure of friendly individuals. His points of view of the two perspectives were the two distinct states of his forlorn life; one is his home, and the other he envisions the simple environment that he like to live in. For him, the house of prayer is the representative introduction of his current status. The drawing at last presents the two characters as the watchers of something very similar from various edges. 2. The drawing carries all the change to the man; he learns the manner in which he ought to see how others feel and watch things around them. At the point when the drawing starts, he was certain he couldn’t finish it and the dread that he was bad at moving pulls him once again from his endeavor. It very well may be considered as his genuine insider, a man ready to distinguish his own likely just with the incitement of outer weight. The passage of the visually impaired elderly person was not a glad idea for him, for he considered the individual as his wife’s old companion and now a visitor just to her. In any case, the nearness of the elderly person was satisfying enough to draws his consideration and the spouse figures out how to carry on towards the remarkable capacities of individuals. His better half is persuasive to his perspectives, and with her ceaseless urges, he begins the approaches to converse with a visually impaired man just because. He learns the manner in which a visually impaired individual lived and understands that physical difficulties are no limitations to man’s knowledge and assurance. I might want to think about that, the spouse will doubtlessly figure out how to adjust to changing conditions throughout his life and work environment and regard different people’s assessment, considering the way that individuals are consistently past his decisions. I unequivocally accept that the visit of the visually impaired man will

Saturday, August 22, 2020

That Newfangled Technology

Set Phasers on Stun Case 14: That Newfangled Technology Summary: On the morning of September 8, 1923, Lieutenant Commander Donald T. Tracker was appointed to answerable for driving fourteen destroyers of Destroyer Squadron 11 to withdraw from San Francisco to San Diego. They were getting back after an accompanying Battle Division 4 from Puget Sound to San Francisco. Around then, the Destroyer Squadron contained with driving leader that instructed by Captain Hunter, USS Delphy (DD-261) and followed by; the four boats of Destroyer Division 33, USS S. P.Lee (DD-310), USS Young (DD-312), USS Woodbury (DD-309), and USS Nicholas (DD-311); the five boats from Destroyer Division 31, USS Farragut (DD-300), USS Fuller (DD-297), USS Percival (DD-298), USS Somers (DD-301), and USS Chauncey (DD-296); and four boats from Destroyer Division 32, USS Kennedy (DD-306), USS Paul Hamilton (DD-307), USS Stoddert (DD-302), and USS Thomson (DD-305). The warships led strategic apparatuses and weaponry pract ices on the way, including a serious speed run of 20 bunches. Later in the day, as climate declined, the boats framed up a segment on the unit chief â€Å"Delphy†. That night, around 2000 hours (8:00 p. . ), the main lead communicate a wrong report, in view of an inappropriately deciphered radio compass bearing, indicating the groups position around nine miles off Point Arguello. About an hour later, the destroyers went east to enter what was believed to be the Santa Barbara Channel, however it couldn't be seen attributable to the thick haze. Lamentably, because of a mix of anomalous solid flows and navigational lack of concern, it drove the group onto the stones seaward point and rough zone of San Miguel Island, close Honda Point. Soon after turning, Delphy struck the stones at 2105 (9:05 p. m. ), furrowing shorewards at 20 knots.More than more terrible, Delphy was trailed by S. P. Lee, which hit and swung broadside against the feigns. Youthful accumulated neighboring Delphy and upset, catching a considerable lot of her fire and motor room team underneath. While Woodbury, Nicholas, and Fuller struck reefs and steered into the rocks seaward, Chauncey ran in close on board Young. Be that as it may, the alert alarms eased back Somers and Farragut enough, so they simply ignited ground before support to more profound water while the five different destroyers stayed away totally. Albeit overwhelming beating surf broke over the seven abandoned destroyers, in the end breaking the Delphy into two parts.Hundreds of thousands gallons of fuel oil from seven boats spilled into the slamming waves, carbide bombs were detonated when they interacted with the water, and various flames started on the boats and on the outside of the ocean. At long last, 23 men kicked the bucket in the guaranteeing endeavors to desert the boats and make it to shore in the murkiness and substantial surf. Around 450 survivors from the seven warships advanced gradually to the tight and rough sea shore beneath the bluff during the hour that followed. S. P. Lee S. P. Lee Fuller Woodbury Chauncey Delphy Young Nicholas What Went Wrong:It later killed to the light that the Squadron was really a few miles north and further east, yet Captain Hunter had distrusted the exactness of a Point Arguello radio sign. Following the turn, Point Arguello was dead ahead, and inaccessible just around two nautical miles. The Point Arguello light may have been covered up by the haze. Notwithstanding, did Captain Hunter issue a request to change obviously of 95â ° left turn, or did he request his boats to go to a heading of 95â ° attractive? Extra Factors: Communication between Captain Hunter and Radioman Falls: The correspondence between Captain Hunter and the radioman was misunderstood.The radioman would report an inappropriate orientation, when the equal bearing ought to have been accounted for. Had the right heading been accounted for from the earliest starting point, the boat wouldnâ₠¬â„¢t have smashed. â€Å"Newfangled Technology† Feedback: The mixed up â€Å"error† demonstrated that Captain Hunter can't generally depend on his solid confidence and that even a gifted mathematician commits errors; and that it’s adequate to depend on innovation. There was no input offered back to Captain Hunter to state its’ thinking behind the bearing that was being accounted for to him. Additionally, there was no criticism given to challenge Captain Hunter’s navigations.If more input was given, it could have been detected that route was off course. Proceeded with utilization of â€Å"That Newfangled Technology†: After the episode of being accounted for an inappropriate direction, Captain Hunter despite everything kept on utilizing the route by radio bearing. It was expected as an innocent slip-up. It wasn’t until after the accident that Captain Hunter understood that the radioman was giving him the right course from the earliest starting point. This could have been forestalled if the framework would have been checked after the main wrong bearing, to perceive what the thinking behind such a mistake was; rather than proceeding on the journey.More Information: According to an article by Noah Andre Trudeau, â€Å"California Naval History †Point Honda: A Naval Tragedy’s Chain of Errors†, a lean spending plan and doubt of new innovation added to a maritime catastrophe at Honda Point, California (Trudeau, 2012). Speed was the basic belief of the ahead of schedule to mid-twentieth century destroyer driver. Assurance and fearlessness was a style of order in which those characteristics could accomplish the outlandish while in peacetime similar credits added to one of the U. S. Navy’s most noteworthy fiascos (Trudeau, 2012).The 18 boats were intended to go along the California coast to San Diego, with their two powerful and low fueled turbines, four tall slender channels and a book speed best ed at 32 bunches. Because of the after war spending reductions, they were working at 20-30% underneath full supplement. Albeit a great deal of live were lost during this disaster, all the fault wasn’t on Captain Hunter. Everybody had an influence, from, Watson’s obsession with making a record 20-tie entry alongside his inability to manage the route, Blodgett’s failure to communicate his interests, and the quiet of the other unit officers.Uncertainties encompass the new innovation, unordinary climate conditions and minor hardware issues likewise had an impact (Trudeau, 2012). Exercise Learned: This case delineated the significance of human mistake and testing all new innovation before use. Albeit all deficiencies in the innovation may not be immediately found testing all angles is basic. It is found out that in spite of the fact that you might be capable in an aptitude and have material experience, botches despite everything occur. The individuals with extraordin ary aptitude and force, similar to Lieutenant Commander Donald T.Hunter, are as yet untrustworthy as people. In spite of having a completely working innovation framework to explore, it shouldn’t totally be reliant on. Rather, the two should help one another, human insight and recently discovered innovation. Extra Reference: Trudeau, N. A. (2012, March 2). California Naval History-Point Honda: A Naval Tragedy's Chain of Errors. Recovered October 29, 2012, from The California State Military Museum: A United States Army Museum Activity: Preserving California's Military Heritage: http://www. militarymuseum. organization/PtHonda. html

Friday, August 21, 2020

ACG 2021, Introduction to Financial Accounting, Spring 2001, Exam 3 Final :: UFL Florida Business Accounting

2021FINALSP01 5/9/2001 FORM CODE: A Page 1 ACG 2021 †FINAL EXAM SPRING 2001 NAME _____________________________________ SS# ____________________________ Guidelines: Presently: Bubble in your area number on your Scan Sheet. Fill in your name and government managed savings number on this assessment and your output sheet. 1. Listen cautiously for any remarks your delegate may have identified with the test. Peruse these directions cautiously. Inability to do so may bring about your losing focuses. 2. This test comprises of 60 numerous decision questions. Select the BEST answer and imprint the proper space on the sweep sheet with a #2 pencil as it were. You MUST keep your output sheet face down on the work area at the point when you are not filling it in. 3. You may utilize ONLY a non-programmable adding machine during the test. Utilization of some other adding machine will be considered an infringement of the respect code. Your test will be taken from you and you will get an evaluation of 0. 4. Toward the finish of 2 hours, you will be advised to stop. Put your pencils down IMMEDIATELY. Inability to do as such will bring about your getting a zero for the test. 5. The test comprises of 16 pages, including this spread, present worth tables and a clear page toward the end. Ensure you have all pages and all inquiries. 6. Have your University of Florida Identification card fit to be checked when you turn in your test. 7. Accept the bookkeeping elements utilize a schedule year except if in any case noted. 8. Except if in any case determined, accept a 360-day year. 9. At the point when you are done, turn in your output sheet, just as your test. Answers will be posted on the web after the tests are given back in class. 10. The University of Florida arrangement on scholarly genuineness will be carefully authorized. At the point when you are advised to open your test, go to the first page and discover your test structure code. Quickly bubble this in on your scantron. 2021FINALSP01 5/9/2001 FORM CODE: A Page 2 1. Which of coming up next is typically NOT viewed as a drawn out obligation? A) Bonds payable. B) Mortgages payable. C) Accrued post-retirement benefits. D) FICA charges payable. E) None of the above is right. 2. The impact on complete resources of the acquisition of provisions for money is An) an expansion in absolute resources B) a decline in absolute resources C) complete resources stay unaltered D) an expansion in absolute resources and all out liabilities E) an expansion in all out resources and current proportion 3. Which of coming up next isn't regularly a condition that must be met for income to be perceived (recorded) under the income standard? A) The profit procedure is finished or almost complete

Thursday, June 18, 2020

Causes of Terrorism Essay - 2200 Words

Causes of Terrorism (Essay Sample) Content: Student NameProfessorCourse DateCauses of Terrorism Terrorism has never been more of an important subject than it has been in the twenty first century. Terrorist attacks have propagated pervasive fear across the world, especially in the period that followed the September 11, 2001 in the United States. An important question, however, is what really motivates terrorists to attack innocent people, often causing hundreds and thousands of casualties across the world. Why do they only attack certain people or their social, cultural, religious, and/or political affiliates? This is an important question to answer as the world seeks the solutions to the problem of terrorism, which continues to escalate by the day. As such, an answer to this question is something the world is in dire need of. It is understood that not all people can agree on the actual definition of terrorism, owing to the fact that terrorists, as they could be conventionally defined, are enemies of world peace , but they see the rest of the world as an enemy and a threat too (Foerster 7). This paper takes a literary point of view in examining the different perspectives of terrorism and how different literature sources discuss the causes of terrorism.The Definition of Terrorism Different authors of books and research papers hypothesize the terrorism concept from different perspectives. As such, different definitions have emerged. One of the most recognized definitions is one that is given by the United States State Department. It defines terrorism as premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience (Rockmore, Margolis and Marsoobian 15). International and national efforts have been engaged in a struggle against terrorism, but, quite unfortunately, the billions of dollars spent every year and the thousands of lives of soldiers and innocent people lost every day only s eem to go down the drain as the terrorism problem continues to aggravate. In this regard, it is important, as some analysts have taken note, to shift focus towards the development of an effective and legal regime in fighting the problem. In order to do that, there needs to be a well-formulated and comprehensive definition of terrorism. This can be done through defining crime that, on one hand, attracts a widespread and internationally recognized ethical disapproval of terrorism and, on the other hand, has adequate precision to drive legitimate and internationally acceptable levels of prosecution (Diaz-Paniagua 47). The definition of terrorism in a comprehensive and explicit way, however, has been found to be extremely difficult (if not impossible) to achieve. One of the biggest problems in defining terrorism emerges in the fundamental values and the beliefs associated with the motivations that are behind terrorism as terrorists seek to accomplish certain objectives (Bassiouni 117). For instance, some see them as freedom fighters and are ready to die for them while the rest of the world may see them as enemies. There are political perspectives that analysts have also developed in the difficulties of defining and dealing with terrorism. According to Sami Zeidan (2004), a very popular researcher and diplomat from Lebanon, the lack of a consensus on the definition of terrorism is the result of the risks of taking sides, which means that the political dimension of the definition supersedes the legal one. Its definition is difficult to achieve because it falls prey to the political interests of certain countries, while others remain on the sidelines (Zeidan 491). A perfect example of this political difficulty is that of Osama bin Laden, who was once, to the United States government, particularly the CIA, a freedom fighter because he was resisting the Soviet Occupation of Afghanistan in the 1970s. He turned against the US as a result of political motivations. Having understood this controversy, it is important to look at the insights that current literature has to offer.Review of Current Literature Having looked at the ideas presented in the definition issue, it emerges that terrorism can be associated with a wide range of motivations. Such would include social, political, and economic motivations. This chapter examines the various dimensions of the causes of terrorism. Socioeconomic Perspectives Sen (1999) adopts a socioeconomic approach towards the explanation of what truly causes terrorism and how it can be cured. He asserts that the most important approach towards fighting terrorism is for governments and institutions to try to promote better governance, which should be considerate of all social issues that affect socially and culturally different people. The improvement of state capacity and legitimacy as well as human development are ways that lie at the core of fighting terrorism (Sen, 53). This point of view seems to suggest that terro rism is used as a way to seek social and economic freedom, the lack of which is the cause of terrorism. As such, human development should be used in fighting deprivation and poverty, which are the root causes of terrorism. This point of view is supported by other sources of literature, with Collier (2003) presenting a similar argument in the context of the Islamic states within the Middle East. He argues that, in these states, economic structures and political powers have robustly entangled (Collier, 53). This is supposed to mean that, if one is in political control of part or all of the state, it is obvious that his socioeconomic status will be high. This further means that the use of political power to gain a higher economic status results in the creation of different social classes, with the lower classes having fewer privileges. This argument is further supported by another researcher. According to Fuller, the biggest problem facing Muslim countries, which is one of the biggest root causes of terrorism, is their inability to invest in human development (Fuller 113). He adds that these Arab states should address the problems of human development in the social and economic contexts as opposed to the use of political power structures and executive administrative strategies that may create more harm than good. This results in political and economic failure and provokes people with fewer privileges to rise against the administration through measures as desperate as killing innocent people. This is arguably one of the biggest causes of what has come to be referred to as the Arab Spring, which has seen hundreds of thousands of innocent lives lost in Egypt, Libya, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Syria. A good example that has been given by another analysis is that of the link between deteriorating educational systems and authoritarian political structures, which have been said to hamper human development (Richards 34). He suggests that instilling democracy and stimulating human development are two social and political activities that should go hand in hand. None of the two can be successful without the other. Unfortunately, none of the aforementioned Arab states has been found to achieve success in any of these two areas because they focus on using political power to govern their people (Richards 34). My Literature research also appears to suggest that there is a connection between social and economic issues of governance and radicalism, which is one of the root causes of the development of terror groups. It has also been a common suggestion within most of the current literature on the causes of terrorism that terror groups cannot achieve anything without societal support (Elliott 1). This means that terrorists are increasingly supported within their local communities because communities share the beliefs and values that motivate terrorists to take action. According to Krueger (2007), democratic countries have no trouble in fighting terrorism as op posed to undemocratic states, where terrorism has become a systemic problem (Krueger and Maleckova 119). The relationship between human development and radicalism has also been found to have a connection with the causes of civil war. It has been discovered that countries that are politically unstable and have low per capita income face high risks of civil wars and associated conflicts.According to Fukuyama (2002), the root cause of radicalism and the subsequent terrorist activities revolve around the lack of strong educational systems that function well as well as economic dispossession. This author adds that this argument should not be disagreed with by fallacy arguments that seek to oppose it. This is based on the argument that terrorists do not come from poor families. They actually come from good economic background and are highly educated. This is supported by the example of the terror attacks of September 11, where fifteen out of the 19 terrorists that carried out the attacks came from Saudi Arabia, which is one of the wealthiest countries in the world (Fukuyama 13). However, it is possible that they were seeking to fight the international oppression that the United States seemingly sought to propagate against Saudi Arabia and the Middle East in general (Dempsey 3). Having discussed the socioeconomic perspectives that the existing literature has presented, the next section will discuss the political motivations behind terrorism. Political Motivations Cinar (1997) adopts a different perspective from what has been discussed in the previous chapter. He compares terrorism to a cancer cell that continues to grow in dysfunctional political systems. He presents that a common form of terrorism is political violence, which emanates from the conflicts that arise within and between political institutions. As such, it is usually caused by the incapacity of the government to deal with issues of legitimacy and political rig...

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Devil And Miss Prym By Paulo Coehlo And The Short...

Sacrifice As children, many people become accustomed to utilizing the words â€Å"good† and â€Å"bad† in daily speech. Whether it is to describe how one is feeling or the nature of a decision made, the practice of binary labeling becomes a habit. In the novel The Devil and Miss Prym by Paulo Coehlo and the short story The Lottery by Shirley Jackson, the villagers must choose between what they perceive as good and what is not. The issue presented in both pieces of literature is whether the good of the many is worth the sacrifice of one individual, bringing to light the question of what really is â€Å"good†. The Devil and Miss Prym is a novel that takes place in the small, remote village of Viscos. A stranger enters into the town and presents the people with the opportunity to obtain riches through the gold he has buried there. The twist, however, is that they must commit murder in order to get the gold, therefore proving his theory that humankind is evil. When f aced with this proposal, the villagers determine that the sacrifice of one in order to benefit society is the right decision. Chantal Prym, the youngest of the villagers, is the messenger the stranger had originally chosen to share his proposition with the villagers. After struggling with determining what is good, she, herself, come to the conclusion that no one can be trusted and therefore the villager’s decision to murder Berta, the village’s wise old lady, is wrong. On the other hand, the villagers in The Lottery come to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Genocide Of The Holocaust - 1372 Words

Yailene Gaona 7th Period Genocide Have you ever wondered how would it be like to experience being killed because of your hair , skin, eye, color? If you had to be killed for any of that it would be called genocide? By genocide they mean destruction of a nation, race, religion, or ethnic group. For example, in 1933 The Holocaust was occurring. Adolf Hitler was the one who began an army of Nazi s and they were the ones that would target Jews. They placed all of the Jews in concentration camps. Two-thirds of these Jews that were living in Europe were killed, about 1.1 million children were killed in this terrible event. Hitler wanted to get rid of the jews because he blamed them for Germany s problems. The most known genocide is the one Hitler caused which was The Holocaust however, genocide has been around the world in Columbia, Mexico, Chiapas, Liberia, South Africa, and Cuba. Columbia s genocide started in 1975 and is still going on till this very day. 10,000 of people were affected and that number is still increasing. The people who were affected are the government officials, leftists, drug wars, and the police and sewer people. The people who caused it were the rightist death squad, drug cartels, and marxists. Colombia s largest rebel organization started on a Tuesday accepted by a partial responsibility for decades of bloodshed and called for a commission to investigate the causes of the armed conflict that has caused many people s lives, there were aboutShow MoreRelatedGenocides And Genocides Of The Holocaust1455 Words   |  6 PagesGenocides Occurring After the Holocaust The Holocaust was a mass murder of millions of individuals’ primary to and during World War II. â€Å"Only 54 percent of the people surveyed by the Anti- Defamation League (ADL) in a massive, global poll has ever heard of the Holocaust† (Wiener-Bronner). The Holocaust was from 1933-1945 and was run by German leader named Adolf Hitler. Hitler was a man who wanted to create his own race of people. Therefore to create this race, he wiped out anyone who did not haveRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Holocaust885 Words   |  4 Pages The Holocaust genocide lasted for approximately 4,482 days. There were nearly twelve years of planning and organizing the extermination of Jews in Europe. For most of those years, nearly all surrounding countries did not partake in assisting the survival of these Jews. Why? Why was there such insufficient help from countries around the world while the Holocaust had been occurring? Had other countries stepped in sooner to provide safety and rescue for the Jews, how different would history be? Read MoreThe Genocide Of The Holocaust1541 Words   |  7 Pageshuman history has existed, genocide as existed along with it. Even though the term itself was not coined until the 1940s by Raphael Lemkin in response to the Holocaust, the act of genocide has been occurring for millennia. In 146 BCE the first recorded act of genocide occurred with the Roman destruction of Carthage According to the Genocide Convention, genocide is defined as â€Å"the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a nat ional, ethnical, racial or religious group†. Genocide happens for a multitudeRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Holocaust1313 Words   |  6 PagesGenocide is the destruction of an ethnic, racial, or religious group. The most famous genocide, conducted by the Germans, is the extermination of the Jewish population known as the Holocaust. There are other genocides such as the Armenian or Darfur genocide, but the Holocaust is the one talked about and studied the most around the world today. Museums exist in Washington D.C, Los Angeles, and parts of Europe that focus primarily on this dark time in history. Vast amounts of books, movies, and documentsRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Holocaust1881 Words   |  8 Pagesreligions for cultural differences. This horrible action is known as genocide and it has killed millions and millions of innocent people in our world. Genocide has happened many times throughout our history and one of the most well known is the Holocaust the deliberate killing of six million Jews. Sadly many people have witnessed genocide with their own eyes and wished they could have unseen it, such as Elie Wiesel, a Holocaust survivor. A few years ago was another event called Darfur occurred whichRead MoreThe Genocide And The Holocaust1198 Words   |  5 PagesThere have been several genocides in the past century. The Cambodian Genocide and the Holocaust are two of the great tragedies of the twentieth century. The Holocaust occurred in Germany and Eastern Europe. The Cambodian genocide took place in Cambodia. The Khmer Rouge was an overwhelming communist force that took Phnom Penh by surprise. In Cambodia, â€Å"21% of the population was killed. That is about 1.7 million people that lost their lives† (â€Å"Past Genocides†). There was little commotion or outcryRead MoreGenocide And The Holocaust772 Words   |  4 Pages Genocide is one of the most tragic events that can happen around the world. Identifying the stages is the most crucial part of stopping these horrible acts. The Bosnian Genocide and the Holocaust could have been prevented or stopped if the 8 stages were properly identified . There are 8 stages of genocide and the first stage is Classification. Classification is putting people into groups based on race, ethnicity, and religion. These groups usually are separated into the superior people and the inferiorRead MoreThe Genocide Of The Holocaust1823 Words   |  8 Pages Genocide Genocide a word that brings forth the morbid image of barbed wire fences, trenches overflowing with bodies, malnourished men, women, and children, a depressing black sky. Genocides definition is â€Å"the deliberate killing of people who belong to a particular racial, political, or cultural group† ( True to its name genocide is a word that has the ability to cause war and leaves a hellish vision in its victims. Despite all of this the seeminglyRead MoreThe Holocaust Genocide1325 Words   |  5 Pages The Holocaust is one of the most gruesome and inhumane events to ever happen in the history of the world. The Holocaust took place during World War II. WWII was one event that was categorized as strictly good vs evil. At the beginning of the war America wanted to remain neutral because we had just come out of WWI and were working on rebuilding our economy. The United States was successful in remaining neutral until Japan bombed Pearl Harbor early on the mo rning of December 7. 1941. The United StatesRead MoreThe Holocaust And The Rwanda Genocide1629 Words   |  7 PagesThe mind of a survivor of genocide can be various, violent, confused, or blank, it can scar the mind indefinitely or not. Not only are the conductors of the kill-spree are scary, but even the victims can be just as terrifying. Two examples of genocide are the Holocaust and the Rwanda Genocide, both of which gives off long ranges of psychological effects on the mind of those who survive. Survivors struggle through the tragic events with the hope they would soon find and be with their loved ones. So

Counter Terrorism Strategy In India- Research Essay Topic - Literature

Question: Make a research essay topic, " Counter Terrorism Strategy in India". Need essay as deeply explained manner with literature English. Can use the Mumbai terrorist attack as an example here but make sure you look at Indias counter-terrorism strategy rather than ways to improve how they handled specific attacks and focus on the broad national counter-terrorism policy rather than the security forces counter-terrorism practices. Answer: Introduction This paper described the several aspect of counter terrorism strategy in India. The main aim of this paper is to evolution and strategies of counterterrorism strategies in India. Indeed, counterterrorism is the technique, tactic and strategy which prevent from terrorism. In the other words, the terrorism is called a war or revolution, then counterterrorism trends to be described in the term of military responses. On the other hand, terrorism means crime. Then, counterterrorism defined in the term of police and law enforcement work. Counter terrorism is called as against the terrorism activity which contains acquire, prevent and react to the unlawful terrorism exercise. (Sheehan 2007) Further, the first counterterrorism campaign was created by William Harcourt in 1880 for helps of Irish fenians. Irish branch was established as field of criminal investigation department of the London Metropolitan Police in the year of 1883 to conflict Irish republican terrorism by penetration and subve rsion, but in the India counterterrorism strategy emerged after the 2008 Mumbai attack and attack on the Indian Parliament in 2001 when several intelligence and operational failures revealed against the terrorism. Mohammad Ajmal Kasab was main accused of Mumbai attack. (Borgeson Valeri 2009) The National Counter Terrorism Center (NCTC) was created as anti-terror agency in the India on the basis of National Counterterrorism Center model of the USA. (Kraft Marks 2013) Existing terrorism groups in India There are several kinds of terrorism and insurgent group operating in India which is recognized by Foreign Terrorist Organization (FTO) of the US state that are following below: Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT): Lashkar-e-Taiba names mean Army of the Pure. This Islamist groups are operating in Pakistan and also from Jammu and Kashmir. This group is accused for many high terrorist attacks in India, including Mumbai commuter rail in the year of 2006. It is getting funds from Pakistan for run their terrorist and criminal activities. (Tankel 2009) Nowadays, it is expanding in the worldwide. Jaish-e-Muhammad: Jaish-e-Muhammad group name means Army of Mohammad. This is another terrorist groups which operating in Jammu and Kashmir. This was founded by Harkat-ul-Ansar in 2000. The main aim of this group is to transfer Jammu and Kashmir area control to Pakistan. (Rana 2009) Harakat-ul-Mujahadeen (HuM): This terrorism group was established in the 1985 as anti-Soviet team conflicting in the Afghanistan. Pakistan based HuM concentration transfer to Jammu and Kashmir when they withdrew from Soviet in the 1989. The Communist Party of India (Maoist): This group is looking to build a revolutionary zone of control expanding from the Nepalese boundary down to Andhra Pradesh state. (Hutt 2004) This group was emerged by the merger of Nexalite groups in 2004. Harakat-ul-Jihad-I-Islami (HUJI): This terrorist group was established in 1980 to fight against Soviet, but currently it has focused on Jammu and Kashmir. Initial stage they are targeted Indian military, but they killed five foreign tourists in Jammu and Kashmir in 1995 which belongs to western country. (Khurshchev 2009) Jamiat ul-Mujahadeen: This is small terrorist group of pro-Pakistan Kashmiri which is blamed for a grenade attacks against India political targets in 2004. The United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA): It was founded in 1979 as socialist state in Assam. In the 1990s, they started to target the political leader and security forces in the Assam state. Through the above terrorist and insurgent groups, the major territory was affected by terrorist activities in the India that are following below: Jammu and Kashmir: This state was central point of terrorist activities when British colonial rule ended from this states. India claims that Pakistan is using this territory for expanding their insurgent through several groups of insurgent and terrorist. One third of the total terrorist attack occurred in this territory. (Kalpan Bajoria 2008) Andhra Pradesh: Many terrorist attacks occurred in this area through Naxalites. Naxalites are revolutionary groups which are affecting around 10000 member lives every year. Naxalites are expanded their area from thirteen states to twenty eight states of the India. (Tickell 2013) The state of Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Orrisa and West Bengal are highly affected from Naxalites activities, but Chhattisgarh is mostly affected by the Maoist violence in 2006. Northeastern states: Most of northeastern states are affected by the violence activities after the Bangladesh was separated off in 1947. Conflicts are expanding most of the Assam and Nagaland states in India. Poverty is major problem in this area and many groups are demanding independent so many terrorist and insurgent activities are occurred in these areas. (Kalpan Bajoria 2008) Counterterrorism strategy in India Due to a lot of terrorist and insurgent groups activates in the India such as Jammu and Kashmir, Northeastern state and Andhra Pradesh. India will have to take special decision against terrorist so they are created counterterrorist strategies. Indeed, India population has cross 1 billion in the current years. India has many ethnic groups, seven major religious with many kinds of organized religious and sub organized religious and around 68 socio-culture sub regions. There are constantly increasing social, economic and political desires of groups in its cultural, lingual, social and communal social system. (Marwah 2012) Further, India has become largest victims of terrorism, but nowadays it has handled terrorism smartly in Mizoram, Punjab and other kinds of nation. India adopted comprehensive strategy to counterterrorism. Counterterrorism will be affective when they adopted national consensus strategy to prevent the terrorism. Indias counterterrorism strategy addresses terrorism as a process with economic, operational, political, psychological, perceptual and diplomatic aspect. India believes to encourage a good governance, healthy, well-functioning democracy, secular and liberal mind set which no difference between majority and minority. They treat everyone equal level on the basis of law concern. We need a local level counterterrorism strategy to prevent terrorism in India. (Curtis 2008) The few significant points need to be highlighted that are following below: First, in the regard of ideological level, this conflict is between terrorist groups which dont trust in value of religious tolerance, multi-cultural and democracy. The counterterrorism strategy is followed by several nations with large defeat and denies factors. An ideological and political counterterrorism factor plays an important dominant role which believes that ideologues should be considered in the plan and operational conflict against terrorism. (Singh 2008) Second, we need to adopt the collaborative plans at the highest level. Although, top-down strategy cannot be apply everywhere. (Mitchell 2008) Counterterrorism operational plan must be worked out for specific area. Third, counterterrorism strategy must deal with all aspect of worldwide terrorism. It connects with transnational organized crime, drug, illegal arms trafficking, money laundering, illicit and nuclear, biological, chemical and other deadly materials and their delivery. It should look the organization action and dedication to meet cross-border threats arranged by the terrorist. Forth, terrorism is not an armed forces problem because it is socio-cultural and socio-economic problem. In the regard of counterterrorism strategy, we should combat and isolate the ideology that is not acceptable to present culture or society. We must use all factors of national power, not only armed forces but also economical, political and other types of opinion and pressures. In the concern, we should use hard power as well as soft power because hard power deals with violent armed terrorist and soft power deals with humanely with cultures, traditions and society. Further, the psychological and intellectual aspects of the terrorist and counterterrorism are significant as its physical attribute. Womens empowerment, youth firms, local development initiative and education network must play a significant role with government as a helpful partner. (Singh 2008) These are some more counterterrorist strategies which adopted by India government through several government bodies and agencie s that are following below: State strategies and its intelligence set-up: In the regard of counterterrorist strategies, Indias federal laws have responsibilities to create policing and maintenance of law for individual states. The Indias central government has rights to give advice them about the financial help, training program and develop their professional caliber and share with the intelligence agencies. (Menezes 2003) The national intelligence community: The national intelligence agencies divided into two parts such internal and external agencies. So, ministry of home affairs and intelligence bureau presented the internal agency. And Cabinet secretariats research and analysis wing to protect from terrorist activities of countries people presented the external intelligence agencies. The IB and RAW: The IB consist internal terrorist intelligence and RAW consists the external related intelligence. The DIA collects tactical intelligence in the regard of counterterrorist operation in the specific areas such as Nagaland and Jammu and Kashmir. (Burch 2007) Physical security agencies: The Central Industrial Security Force provides physical security at Indian airport and sensitive areas. The National Security Guards forces provides safety from hijacking the plane activities. Further, Special Protection Group handled prime minister and former prime minister Security which is very necessary in the globalization world. Paramilitary forces: Its play an important role in the counterterrorism strategy. The Border Security Force and Central Reserve Police Force are known as paramilitary forces which help the police in counter-terrorism operation when they called for this specific work. (Amritsar 2010) The Army: Indian government takes army assistance when the paramilitary and the police are not able to protect with a terrorist attacks. Due to large scale of Pakistan infiltration in Jammu and Kashmir, the army plays an important role in this area for counterterrorism operations. India is not only facing terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir, but also a proxy war by the Jihadi representative. (Menezes 2003) In the recent years, there have been two extra counterterrorism strategies following by the Indian governments that are discuss below: Multi-disciplinary centre: It is headed by the experienced IB officer. These kinds of agencies handled intelligence collection work and counterterrorist strategy will work under general umbrella. Ministry of external affairs: This ministry will be responsible for diplomatic aspect of counterterrorism such as other nations on mutual legal help, Pakistans patronization of terrorism, servicing the work of several mixes working groups and processing requests for extradition. (Prakash 2008) Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA): In 2002, government approved the Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) to increasing the government power against terrorism. Through this act, India governments have rights to keep suspected people in custody without any trial. This law was looked as death certificate of crime and terrorism activities, but the law was canceled in 2004 due to allegations that some people are mis-using their power. Although, politicians are wanted to repair the law because of this kinds of activities are raised. Due to POTA act, we are able to take more strict decision against the terrorist such as Kasab. It was the main blamed of Mumbai attack. (Lokaneeta 2011) Further, some states of India such as Karnataka and Maharashtra have some different law. The name of the law was Maharashtra Control of Organized Crime Act (MCOCA) and the Karnataka Control of Organized Crime Act which used to track suspected terrorists. MCOCA is tougher than POTA and it is generally abused by t he scrutiny agencies. Other states such as Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat and Uttar Pradesh are looking same counterterrorism law. Conclusion From the above discussion, it can be concluded that there are no fast solution for counterterrorism because it is a long term process. There are not single military solutions available for terrorist, secessionist and insurgency problem. Counterterrorism in India needs a comprehensive strategy that covers social, psychological, operational, economical, political and diplomatic issues. Because most of terrorist groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, The Communist Party of India, The United Liberation Front of Assam and Jaish-e-Muhammad members are direct or indirect related to society, culture and political. For example kasab was the main accused of Mumbai attacks which belongs to human society and culture, but due to bad guidance they killed many innocent people. So, terrorist is not exactly our problem rather than reason of terrorism is main problem with us. Therefore, when we got the reason behind the terrorism then we would able to make proper counterterrorism strategies for all aspect o f terrorism. It is necessary for the government of the specific region to cooperate, look informed helps from their people, legitimate, provide responsive, build trusted networks and engage closely with international community. References Amritsar, S, 2010, Effect of physical training on pulmonary function tests in border security force trainees of India, J Life Sci, 2(1), 11-15. 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